Sunday, May 24, 2020
Writing and the Teaching of Writing in Higher Education in Indonesia One of language skills that need to be mastered by learners of English in EFL context is writing. The teaching of writing, in general, aims at developing studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to utilize their knowledge effectively in certain text. However, learning to write in English is not easy for non-native speakers of English because L1 writing is different from L2 writing. Silva (1993, p. 669) mentions that Ã¢â¬Å"L2 writing is strategically, rhetorically, and linguistically different in important ways from L1 writing.Ã¢â¬ In addition, Hyland (2003, p. 31) lists a number of issues related to differences between L1 and L2 as follows: 1. Different linguistic proficiencies and intuitions about language 2. Different learning experiences and classroom expectations 3. Different sense of audience and writer 4. Different preferences for ways of organizing texts 5. Different writing processes 6. Different understandings of text uses and the social value of different types. Comparing the writing system of English and Indonesian, there are some differences that exist. Nunan (2003) and Kuntjara (2004) mention that there is a difference in writing style between Asian learners of English and native speakers of English. Asian learners of English, including Indonesian learners of English, usually has indirect and inductive writing style. On the contrary, the writing style of native speakers of English tends to be direct and deductive. Moreover,Show MoreRelatedTeaching Thinking By Teaching Writing981 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnytime I was told to write a paper of more than a page, the first thing that crosses my mind was run-ons and grammar errors. However, as I read Ã¢â¬Å"Teaching Thinking by Teaching Writing,Ã¢â¬ I was exposed to two different techniques to begin the writing process. In this article, Peter Elbow explains what the two techniques mean and what they do for us. The first phase, which he terms Ã¢â¬Å"first order of thinking,Ã¢â¬ he says is Ã¢â¬Å"intuitive and creative and does not strive for conscious direction or controlÃ¢â¬ Read MoreIssues in Teaching Writing1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWriting proves daily to be a tool one can use in their own way to express themselves. Many teachers have their own approaches to teaching writing and not to say that they are not effective I just feel that if some people change their approach some of the problems I myself see can be changed by a change in the approach to teaching and assessing writing. Some issues I see are students not being exposed to different styles of writing, their writing assignments challenge their knowledge and remembranceRead MoreThe Importance Of Teaching Writing899 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWriting, according to the students, is a secondary in comparison to how the other skills are thaught such as reading and listening. The students view writing in ELI a subordinate skill that i s used to practice vocabulary and grammar with limited attention put on the writing skill per se. It is used to reinforce vocabulary items taught in the reading, practice grammatical rules, and recompose correct sentence structure containing the topic assigned. Teachers expressed that writing is a sub skill.Read MoreUnderstanding And Teaching Informational Writing1557 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Understanding and Teaching Informational Writing for Kindergarteners Harli Gottesman Georgia Southern University College of Education The specific standards that my unit will address include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ ELAGSEKW2: Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. Ã¢â¬ ¢ SSKH1 The student will identify the purpose of national holidays and describe the Ã¢â¬ ¢ peopleRead MoreStrategies For Teaching Writing As A Group1634 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnalysis of groupÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion Throughout week eight which was looking at strategies for teaching writing as a group, we presented a well-rounded daily task to the discussion board, awaiting students in our learning group to respond. It s these responses that will guide this section of the folio and my own personal reflection regarding my role in the group. From day one of our posts students has responded well. One post that was submitted by Skinner (2017) has supported my own views of literacy;Read MoreTeaching Handwriting And Cursive Writing1274 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdecreased significantly. Often left out in the cold, the teaching of handwriting and cursive writing in school systems has become almost a figment of our imagination with everything from letters to emails and faxes to mail delivery. The question that is being asked now, is, why are there still some school systems that persist on keeping the form of calligraphy alive and well in their curriculum, when technology will inevitably keep evolving? Writing is one of the earliest skills taught to children andRead MoreTeaching Writing Informal Letters8861 Words Ã |Ã 36 PagesIntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦2 Chapter I. General notion of writingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.3 1.1.Writing skillsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦3 1.2. The importance of effective writing skillsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..6 1.3. Informal writingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.7 1.4. Letter writingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...9 1.5. Different types of lettersÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦11 Chapter II.Teaching writing informal lettersÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦13 2.1. InformalRead MoreEssay on A Methodology to Teaching Writing2030 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesA Methodology to Teaching Writing I believe that achieving success in teaching very different aspects of life may still combine similar processes. My life in high school was very similar to the lives of many other students in that it revolved around two things: sports and school. My sport of choice was tennis and my favorite academic area was English. Unexpectedly, I found many similarities led to a successful performance in both areas. My understanding of the need for a good program toRead MoreTeaching Writing : Balancing Process And Product Essay1380 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe second chapter in TompkinsÃ¢â¬â¢ book, Teaching Writing: Balancing Process and Product, Tompkins talks about the different writing strategies that teachers can implement during the writing process. In my opinion, these writing strategies are especially important for young writers, due to the fact that the process in extremely important when beginning to write. Tompkins supports this belief what she writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Even the youngest writer s can learn to apply writing strategiesÃ¢â¬ (2012, p. 34). These strategiesRead MoreUsing Process Approach For Teaching Writing1712 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStrength It is controversial to use process approach to teach writing in the recent years. There are many teachers support that process approach is a good teaching strategy to be used in lesson since it is beneficial to students. It helps students to get a new understanding of the writing process, comparing to the traditional writing style. First, process approach encourages comments in different stages. During writing, students are encouraged to seek comments from others. It is good to students
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Dell Online Dell Computer CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s Michael DellÃ¢â¬â¢s decisive and apparently uncontested vision for the sustained growth of the corporation hinges on advancing the Dell Direct Model. A distinct advantage displayed by Dell versus his closest competitors in this arena-Gateway, Compaq, Hewlett-Packard and Digital Equipment seems to be the synergy created by the integration of marketing communication efforts and their ability to accurately adjust sales staff and production levels to meet the corresponding demand. The primary problem facing Dell and its competitors is the general softening of the PC and PC server/peripheral markets during a time when the industry is in the maturity stage. The mature industry in this case finds thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦last quarter carried the Dell name (Dell, 2001).2 This past fiscal quarter Dell overtook its No.1 competitor, Compaq as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading direct computer systems company and stands as a premier supplier of technology for the Internet infrastructure. In similar fashion, Dell has been gaining market share in the higher margin PC server market segment, which is closely tied to and compliments the corporate PC market. The PC server market has been dominated by Compaq, Hewlett-Packard and IBM, however Dell announced Q4 Fiscal 2000 results that were surprisingly strong in this product segment. For the quarter, Dell shipments were up 43 percent overall, more than four times the industry rate and at multiples of the industry in all product categories, customer segments and geographic markets. Shipments of Dell Power Edge servers increased 63 percent and Dell accounted for 30 percent of global server growth, expanding at more than three times the industry rate and adding two full points of market share (Dell Delivers, 2001). 3 Companies in industries identified to be in the maturity stage understand that it is critical to increase market share domestically and aim toward expansion in less mature and emerging international markets. Growth at twice or more the overall industry rate in most geographic areas and product markets is a goal for Dell during the 2001 fiscal year. So, to revisit the problem Ã¢â¬â a softening, or flat atShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of Dell Online711 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAnalysis of Dell Online Introduction: 1) In July 1996, Dell Computer had launched its online website, www.dell.com 2) Dell also developed Premier Pages, online interfaces with its key corporate accounts. Story of Dell: * In 1985, Dell shifted itÃ¢â¬â¢s companyÃ¢â¬â¢s focus to assembling its own brand of PCS amp; business grew dramatically with $70 million(Rs.364 crores) in sales at the end of the 1985. * DellÃ¢â¬â¢s success continued through 1992, until in 1993, it faced an operating lossRead MoreDell Inc. : The Biggest Online Retailer Of Pcs And Related Gear1077 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDell Inc. today transfers after a standout amongst the most element plans of action, permitting it to be the biggest online retailer of PCs and related gear. By offering its clients whole customization with the item on offer, Dell guarantees that clients are included in the picking of details, in this way making another stride in PC buy known as personalisation. The component has now been received by numerous other PC makers, yet at the same time remains Dell s essential way to deal with retailingRead MoreAdvantages And Disadvantages Of Inventory Management1147 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesoffices. Dell computer company choose a distribution strategy with select decentralized locations, and sought virtual integration with its supply chain. The companys strengths were speed and lower cost of getting computers to the customer. They realized that reverse integration in the supply chain would add complexity, and instead partnered with suppliers to guarantee that necessary inventory would be on-hand. The Dell corporation required its suppliers to open warehouses near its own Dell assemblyRead MoreDells Long Term Objectives: Strategy Formulation and Implementation1156 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnvironmental Analysis of Dell Organization Dells external environment identifies all the current conditions and forces that affect its strategic options and define its competitive situation. It consists of three main sectors: the Remote Environment, the Industry Environment, and the Operating Environment. All of these environmental sectors affect the firms operations both on an international and domestic level. Remote Environment In recent years the computer hardware industry has experiencedRead MoreDell Strength and Weakness986 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesenvironment and the historical perspective of Dell, Michael Dell needs to realize that his nearly 20 year-old business model needs a dramatic change. He needs to get the product in customers hands (before point-of-sale), focus on quality customer support/service, and use customer indicators as a sign of what areas need improvement/enhancement within the company. Additionally, limited options based on narrow-minded perceptions (only using Intel chips) not only cost Dell market share, it also cost them on theRead MoreDell Corporate Strategy1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCorporate Strategy The economic activities performed by Dell encompass the development, manufacturing, sale and support of personal computers and computer-related products. Since its foundation, the company has been based on the Direct Model, i.e. Dell has always tried and managed to create direct relationships with its customers, by selling products directly and without the participation of intermediaries. The sale has always taken place through a telephone service or via the Internet. In orderRead MoreThe Dell Promotion and Price Paper1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Dell Promotion and Price Paper Michael Kunkel University Of Phoenix MKT 421 Robert Walker 01/09/06 The Dell Promotion and Price Paper Promotion is the most important component in the 4 Ps, so understanding how to promote a product is crucial to any company. No company knows this better than The Dell Corporation. Dell uses many different promotional methods to get their computer products seen by their targeted consumer markets. In todays paper I am going to start off by discussing someRead MoreCase Studies1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageser w w. wi l ey .c om/ c o l le ge / aak CASE 5-2 Dell in Latin America? Dell, which thrived while other PC makers stumbled in 1998, reported a 53 percent jump in proÃ¯ ¬ t and a 50 percent jump in revenue for its Ã¯ ¬ scal second quarter, which ended in July 1998. Unlike most of its rivals, Dell deals directly with customers and builds PCs only after receiving an order. However, all is not well for Dell. While Dell continues to blow away the competition and Wall Street with enormousRead MoreEssay on Case Analysis of Dell: Selling Directly, Globally1142 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBusiness Model: Dell Inc. founded by Michael Dell in the 1984 is the worlds largest PC Manufacturer with annual sales of over $54 billion from around 170 countries. The Company was founded on a simple concept; that by selling personal computers directly to customers, Dell could best understand their needs and provides the most effective computing solutions to meet those needs. Dell provides computer systems under its enviable low-cost direct sales model under which the company maintains fullRead MoreEnvironmental Factors1073 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmay impact Dell Computer Corporation s marketing decisions, how technology impacts Dell s marketing decisions, and we will also take a look at the importance of social responsibility and ethics as related to Dell s marketing ventures. Dell Computer Corporation is the world s leading direct computer systems company. From the company s very modest start in 1984 to the present day, Dell has had many different environmental factors to work with and overcome. Like most companies, Dell must consider
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Colonial Incentives for Independence July 4th of 1776 is arguably the most significant day in American history. On this day, the thirteen British colonies won their independence from Great Britain, their mother country at the time. The war that allowed the colonies to gain their independence was, of course, the American Revolution. One reason the colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ declaration of independence was understandable was because after an extended period of salutary neglect, the British started imposing laws on the colonies. Another reason was that the British violated colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ rights by implementing the Proclamation of 1763. A third and final reason the colonies were correct in breaking away from Great Britain was that although theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These taxes and laws angered the colonies as they had adapted to isolation and started to become more independent. A second reason was because the colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ rights were violated when the British passed the Proclamation of 1763. This law was passed after the French and Indian War ended in 1763. It restricted colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. Great Britain passed this law in order to avoid quarrels with the Native Americans, but more importantly to control its colonies. The British wanted to continue its system of mercantilism where the colonies could provide raw materials to Great Britain, which guaranteed the market for exports. The colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ western expansion was being stopped and at the same time laws and taxes were being inflicted on them. The restrictions that the British set for expanding westward and their sudden involvement made colonists feel like their rights were being violated. Finally, the thirteen colonies had the right to secede from Great Britain because of their lack of representation in British Parliament. After the Molasses Act, the Quartering Act, and the Stamp Act were passed, the colonists cried out the well-known expression, Ã¢â¬Å"No taxation without representation.Ã¢â¬ The colonistsShow MoreRelatedThe Dialectics Of Public Policy In Mali914 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesleast, during the colonization period, when the region was named French Sudan. Sudan was a zone of secondary economic significance for the colonial empire. Nonetheless, through coercion first and incentives thereafter, the colonial state tried to improve agriculture yielding and the production of cash crops mainly cotton (Serra 2014). At the time of the independence, in 1960, cotton was a significant export crops run by the CFDT (French company for the development of textile fibers; Compagnie franÃ §aiseRead MoreThe Effects of Colonization on Various African Countries Essay1383 Wo rds Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn trying to analyze the link between colonial rule and nationalist rule, one cannot discount the influence of the past on the present. Analyzing nationalist actions and decisions without taking into account how society got to that point, and the situation of society when power was transferred would be asinine. The effects of colonization on various African countries through border setting and defining ethnic groups, the morphing of ethnic group disputes into class-based struggles, and the stuntingRead MoreThe French And Indian War1556 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfurther drove a wedge in the sense of colony unification because the AmerindiansÃ¢â¬â¢ growing discontent led to small scale skirmishes and the Proclamation of 1763 made the rebel colonists dislike the rule of the British colonial government. The Amerindian conflicts are the blame of the colonial rebels because the Amerindians could attack the main colonies in response to occasional perpetrators that have cr ossed already dainty boundaries. This causes feud between colonists/colonies because some of their ownRead MoreThe Declaration Of Independence Rhetorical Analysis1639 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The Declaration of IndependenceÃ¢â¬ Rhetorical Analysis Essay Composed by Thomas Jefferson and the representatives in the general congress on the historic date of July 4th, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was an expeditious response to the many acts legalized by the British Parliament prohibiting the colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ freedom, and a dismissal of a partition to the King by the First Continental Congress. Not only did it oppose British acts of tyranny, but it was also an incentive for many other universalRead MorePost Colonial Afric State Building And Economic Modernization1596 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPost Colonial Africa: State-Building and Economic Modernization The professor Ali Mazrui, imaginatively titled one of his journal articles Ã¢â¬Å" Africa Between the Baobab Tree and the Owl of Minerva: A Post Colonial Narrative of Memory and LearningÃ¢â¬ . The choice that Mazrui made in this title is particularly interesting; by juxtaposing two symbols, that are respectively associated with African and European cultures, he acknowledges the profound impact that Europe has left after colonization. It is trueRead MoreDecolonization : The Wretched Of The Earth1283 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbetween European colonists and colonial states, and their views on the process of gaining national freedom. Nevertheless, as Fanon defined in the article Ã¢â¬Å"On ViolenceÃ¢â¬ from his book Ã¢â¬Å"The Wretched of the EarthÃ¢â¬ , decolonization is a historical process which can only be understood and self coherent under certain history background. Hence, since they were in different colonial situations, their perspectives vary. As for Fanon and CÃ ©saire, Euro pean colonizers dominated the colonial states like Algeria and dehumanizedRead MoreFactors of Gender Inequality in the Society633 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageschromosomes, brain structure and hormonal differences. The following factors account for issues of gender inequalities in the Ghanaian society. Education inequality Gender differences in enrolment for formal education have narrowed slightly since Independence but continue to persist particularly at higher levels. Dropout rates for boys and literacy rates are still much lower for women than men. During the last decade, the private costs of education have risen, putting many families under financial strainRead MoreIndonesi The Largest Economy Of South East Asia1110 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesabundance of natural resources, wars and conquest, as well as trade has fundamentally shaped the economic and political structure. Furthermore, leadership influence, intervening forces, and its colonial masters have also played a large role in constructing the systems of this developing country. The colonial period has greatly formed Indonesia into the country it is today; however, this period did not start immediately as outsiders entered. The Dutch first arrived in the country during the end ofRead MoreAmerican Timber: In-Depth Approach Toward Wood Derivative Markets and Deforestation Legislation1073 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrelationship in which follows a neoclassical growth model of maximizing potential output, eventually halting at a steady state. This generalizes over the short-term economic gains by utilizing the timber and land to an advantageous endogenous growth theory. Colonial Americas reliance on wood can be traced to township commercial buildings in which the primary structure built was a sawmill. The derivative products of harvested timber can start simply with primary products, e. g. Fuel and Lumber, to secondaryRead MoreThe Colonization Of Africa During The Late Nineteenth Century936 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages There were numerous reasons why the new imperialism happened. One motive is the economic pressure. The industrialization of Europe stimulated a demand for minerals. The long depression of 1872 to 1896 also gave the industrialized countries an incentive to seek control of the sources of raw materials and the markets for their industrial products. Asia and Africa are rich in raw materials. Part of Africa is rich in palm oil, which can be used as lubricant for machinery, and Asia became very important
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theDick Smith Accounting Theory. Answer: Introduction: Accounting Theory refers to logically analyse a decisive number of extensive principles that assist in providing a general framework of reference which helps in evaluation of accounting practice and management of recent practices and processes (Malmi and Granlund, 2009). On July 14, 2016 McGranthNicol administrator of Dick Smith Group of Companies published its report highlighting the causes of the companies collapse. Dick Smith was considered to be fifth largest electronics retailer in Australia having a wide chain of retail stores selling consumer electronic goods. Even after running successfully in mid of 2013 it failed miserably. Dick Smith Holdings discloses as to how a booming publicly listed Australian Company exhibiting good Corporate Governance was a disaster to happen. The scrutiny into the matter discloses as to what went wrong. Firstly, Consumer Electronic market is considered to be highly competitive which experiences accelerated changes in consumer demand patterns (Holliday, Ward and Fielden, 2015). Piling up of inventory proved to be fatal for this type of business. Secondly, with interminable declining sales the market share of the company also shrank. Revenue growth of the company depended on its store growth and low margins on its commercial sales. Thirdly, inventory decisions taken by the company did not go hand in hand with the consumers demand. This led to building up of inventory and stimulated poor product mix decisions. Fourthly, the retailer was incapable to attain amicable credit terms. This negatively influenced the product mix, stocks levels, and store presentation. Fifthly, the company experienced cash flow issue in partial that crept due to wrong footed supplier agreements. It was down and out for rebates from its suppliers so t hat it could institute cash flow which is regarded to be the lifeblood of any company. But they couldnt cut it and maintain their performance and sagged regarding terms of like for like the sale. Woolworth sold off the retailer to a private equity firm Anchorage Capital Partners who floated the company on the stock exchange for $520 million a year later. This created an impression in the minds of investors that the company being worth $20 million is now @520 million. The current scenario put an impression that the investors and regulators are going to look long and hard at private equity funds. This was a lesson for the equity investors to do their bit of analysis and investigation before investing their money (Verkerk, 2013). Moreover, gifts cards bought by shoppers during Christmas became a useless piece of plastic. Investors who bought the companys share at $ 2.20 per share mere two years ago were left empty handed. Employees of the company are struggling to find new jobs and customers are reigning in their spending. Banks are considered to be aware of what is going on in a company but, it is not the same in the case of creditors and the shareholders. The management came up with diversification plan which demanded for appreciable financial commitment. This process involved bank borrowings and appreciable suppliers commitment. It is believed that business expansion at a rapid pace is generally destined to face financial distress (Bianchi and Winch, 2009). Retailers annual report highlighted the opening of 25 stores. Meanwhile, the products became less popular with customers. What the company was left with was aged and obsolete stock which was majorly written down by $ 58 million. It needed heavy discounts to boost sales of rebated stock. Strategy undertaken by the management to crop clearance sale by resorting to heavy discounts did not reap desired results (Carter, 1996). Decembers stock clearance and cash generation were below the management expectations despite prices being slashed and advertisement spending being doubled down. Its intense endeavor to trade its way out demolished the margin uplift that the rebate targeted to ach ieve. It failed to attract people to walk through and make purchases and alleviate cash pressure. This effort acted as a suicidal effort on the company. It is unfortunate on the part of Australian insolvency firms as they barely produce financial statements that assist the stakeholders in providing an understanding to what happened in a company since it last reported as a going concern. It became an ordeal for Anchorage Capital trying to float a retail business on the stock exchange. There are testimonials to other private equity floats that have disoriented their shareholders money, such as Myer and Collins Foods (Pourakbar, Sleptchenko and Dekker, 2009). It highlights that there is always going to be looped in any research but, what is worthwhile is devoting sometime in understanding an asset and its history. Some respected stock pickers marked Dick Smith a buy in recent months. It is always advisable to hold a wide range of investment which is regarded to be the best way to counter overall risk. By making an investment in just one share is assumed as a gamble, no matter how successful a company is. Putting money into many baskets smoothens out good and bad ones. Investment diversifies further when it is not limited only to share market but beyond into property, infrastructure (Campbell, 2010). A shareholder should be flexible enough to pull out its investment from a sinking company and invest elsewhere. Masters Home Improvement is one of such Australian home improvement chain that faced similar failures to despair. Masters made a blunder when they fell through to understand the wants and needs of their target market. They strived to import Lowes American Model into Australia, with an assumption that the same principle would work here without inputting fairly enough thought to it. Masters too like Dick and Smith Holdings rolled out new stores before ensuring about what the customers demanded and what it was to offer. Masters created highly widespread and attractive stores and stacked it with nonDIY products such as kitchen and appliances, along with upsetting store layouts, relatively unskilled staff and higher prices fell out to be completely contradictory to the needs of their target market. The inexperienced staffs are often found to be indefinite about the products and its location in the store. The staff being unhelpful for being ignorant about the products depicts poor customer service. It encompassed much more products which were out of the categories of hardware products. Store layout was regarded to be terrible failing to be depicting a proper hardware store. Customers rated the range of products as rubbish and overpriced where an individual can get a real tool which would last a lifetime and would not require any replacement in six months or so, therefore head back to the store again. The range of products did not meet up to the quality standards and branding of its customers. A simple customer survey could have done wonders which Masters executive team failed to do in six years (Pepe, 2011). It was an impermissible failure of the management, particularly in dealing with such a large, entrenched competitor and risking billions of dollars of shareholders fund. The objective of the organization should be clearly defined in accordance to target market at all times. This knowledge should be clearly instilled and refreshed in the minds of every staff member in the business. An accounting profession comprises of research, policy, and practice. Therefore broadly the profession of accounting is required to be more communicative and regulated between practitioners, policy makers, and academic researchers (Lombardi and Cooper, 2015). By imparting more education about the value of academic research in university programs, it is likely to enhance the importance of academic research to practitioners. More direct contact between academics and practitioners would ensure improvement in the quality of academic research. Usage of rebates from suppliers led to the Dick Smith collapse. An advanced accounting standard explaining about the basis of revenue recognition is expected to be effective from 2018. This theory is supposed to deal with some issues relat ing to the treatment of rebates (Kasztelnik, 2015). Over the years, the government has emphasized on GST collection to help Australian retailers battle against sales over electronic sales. This is merely a propaganda to grab tax justification. The demise of Dick Smith Electronics did not come as a surprise in hindsight; it is illuminating from business owners perspective to contemplate exactly what could have been the causes to the two behemoths to fall. An academic accounting researchs contribution to accounting practices aims at computation of existent accounting practices, evolution of advanced practices (Bradshaw, 2009). An academic research plays a crucial role to not only reckon the extent to which the existing practices is well suited but also enroot novel practices to address growing business, economics, and societal needs (Parker, Guthrie and Linacre, 2011). References Bianchi, C. and Winch, G. (2009). Supporting value creation in SMEs through capacity building and innovation initiatives: the danger of provoking unsustainable rapid growth.IJEV, 1(2), p.164. Bradshaw, M. (2009). Analyst Information Processing, Financial Regulation, and Academic Research.The Accounting Review, 84(4), pp.1073-1083. Campbell, J. (2010). Global Currency Hedging: What Role Should Foreign Currency Play in a Diversified Investment Portfolio?.CFA Institute Conference Proceedings Quarterly, 27(4), pp.8-18. Carter, C. (1996). Marketing electronic consumer goods.Engineering Management Journal, 6(1), p.41. Holliday, N., Ward, G. and Fielden, S. (2015). Understanding younger older consumers' needs in a changing healthcare market-supporting and developing the consumer market for electronic assisted living technologies.International Journal of Consumer Studies, 39(4), pp.305-315. Kasztelnik, K. (2015). The Value Relevance of Revenue Recognition under International Financial Reporting Standards.AFR, 4(3). Lombardi, L. and Cooper, B. (2015). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in the Accounting Profession - An Exploratory Study.Australian Accounting Review, 25(1), pp.84-99. Malmi, T. and Granlund, M. (2009). In Search of Management Accounting Theory.European Accounting Review, 18(3), pp.597-620. Parker, L., Guthrie, J. and Linacre, S. (2011). The relationship between academic accounting research and professional practice.Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal, 24(1), pp.5-14. Pepe, M. (2011). Customer Lifetime Value: A Vital Marketing/Financial Concept For Businesses.Journal of Business Economics Research (JBER), 10(1), p.1. Pourakbar, M., Sleptchenko, A. and Dekker, R. (2009). The floating stock policy in fast moving consumer goods supply chains.Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 45(1), pp.39-49. Verkerk, M. (2013). Social Entrepreneurship And Impact Investing.Philosophia Reformata, 78(2), pp.209-221.
Saturday, April 4, 2020
Copyright 1996 The Johns Hopkins University Press. All rights reserved. The Lion and the Unicorn 20.1 (1996) 132-152 American Film Adaptations of The Secret Garden: Reflections of Sociological and Historical Change Julaine Gillispie The creative team behind Marsha Norman's 1991 Broadway musical of The Secret Garden often joked about " The Secret Garden club," whose members, upon mention of Frances Hodgson Burnett's children's classic, purportedly gasped, reached toward their hearts, and passionately declared, "'That was my favorite book'" (qtd. in McGee 64). No doubt the prospect of having such ardent, die-hard fans in the musical's audience was daunting, to say the least. If asked, the filmmakers who have chosen to adapt Burnett's work (or any other perennial favorite, for that matter) probably would admit to some concerns about pleasing the legion of Secret Garden devotees. Douglas Street, for example, opens his introduction to Children's Novels and the Movies by discussing the particular problems inherent in adapting cherished childhood novels into film (xiii). He likens filming a children's classic to moving a Victorian home to a modern location. He writes, "Ultimate success is depen dent upon the perceptive preservation of original feeling and attraction in harmony with requirements necessitated by the new, cinematic setting" (xviii). Indeed, the director's ability to remain true to the sense of the literary original and concurrently update it to reflect contemporary mores and cinematic techniques plays a major role in determining whether an adaptation becomes a classic or fades into obscurity. Several scholars, including Morris Beja, George Bluestone, Judith Mayne, and Sergei Eisenstein, study adaptation, exploring the relationship between novels and films. HYPERLINK "http://0-muse.jhu.edu.wam.seals.ac.za/journals/lion_and_the_unicorn/v020/20.1gillispie.html" \l "FOOT1" 1 While there is, in general, concurrence among scholars about the common qualities of the two--such as narrative and point of view--novels and films are, nonetheless, different media. [End Page 132] Morris Beja points out, "If narrative literature and film share, indeed by definition, the basic element of the story, they do not 'tell' the story in the same way or in the same 'language'" (54). Consequently, filmmakers must alter the original work to fit their cinematic medium (hence, the name adaptation). Despite the potential difficulties of successfully condensing and converting Burnett's almost three-hundred-page novel into approximately one hundred minutes of celluloid, several directors have attempted to do so. In fact, the work's continued popularity among children and adults makes this children's classic a candidate for multiple adaptations by different media: drama, electronic multimedia, musical theater, opera, and film. HYPERLINK "http://0-muse.jhu.edu.wam.seals.ac.za/journals/lion_and_the_unicorn/v020/20.1gillispie.html" \l "FOOT2" 2 The Secret Garden (1911) inspires these multiple adaptations in part because directors aspire to stamp their unique, creative genius and society's current cultural perspectives on the text--the enchanting tale of the regeneration of two children, Mary Lennox and Colin Craven, through a garden near the moors of Yorkshire, England. Burnett's book, like all great works of literature, appeals to its audience in different way s through an ample assortment of themes: child neglect, class differences, mystical faith, the value of friendship, the healing power of positive thinking, self-reliance, healthy living, and nature. This gives The Secret Garden the chameleon-like ability to change to match its environment. This dynamic quality enables box-office conscious filmmakers to tailor the story to suit a specific era. The films of the American society, in and of their time, provide a glimpse of the nation's cultural, social, and political ideologies. Traditionally, film content is a product of these shifting views and contemporary concerns. A close examination of three American live-action features of The Secret Garden --the 1949 Metro Goldwyn Mayer (MGM) film, the 1987 Hallmark Hall of Fame television production, and the 1993 Warner Brothers (American Zoetrope) movie--reveals that each version remains reasonably faithful to the chronology of the original and heightens the Gothic elements of the text; conversely, each adaptation's interpretation is radically different, reflecting the historical and sociological changes in American society. HYPERLINK "http://0-muse.jhu.edu.wam.seals.ac.za/journals/lion_and_the_unicorn/v020/20.1gillispie.html" \l "FOOT3" 3 Just as films are often time capsules, literature, too, can function as a "'cultural reference point'" (qtd. in Manna 58). Certainly The Secret Garden is an exemplar of this truth. As many returning-adult readers and critics note, the novel begins as Mary's book and ends as Colin's story. HYPERLINK "http://0-muse.jhu.edu.wam.seals.ac.za/journals/lion_and_the_unicorn/v020/20.1gillispie.html" \l "FOOT4" 4 Although scholars' opinions
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Harsh Punishment Backfires in Prison, Researcher Says Currently, the U.S. leads the world in the rate of incarceration. The current numbers show that 612 people per 100,000 residents age 18 or older are imprisoned.Ã According to some criminal justice experts, the current prison system puts too much emphasis on harsh punishment and not enough on rehabilitation and it simply does not work. The current system only provides a breeding ground for more aggressive and violent behavior, according to Joel Dvoskin, PhD of the University of Arizona and author of Applying Social Science to Reduce Violent Offending. Aggression Breeds Aggression Prison environments are replete with aggressive behaviors, and people learn from watching others acting aggressively to get what they want, Dvoskin said. It is his belief that behavior modification and social learning principles can work inside prison just as they do outside. Certainty vs. Severity of Punishment In criminological research performed by Valerie Wright, Ph.D., Research Analyst at The Sentencing Project, it was determined that certainty of punishment, rather than the severity of punishment is more likely to deter criminal behavior. For example, if a city announces that police will be out in force looking for drunk drivers during a holiday weekend, it would likely increase the number of people who decide not to risk drinking and driving. Severity of punishment attempts to scare potential criminals because the punishment that they could receive is not worth the risk. This is the bases behind why states have adopted the tough policies such as Three Strikes.Ã The concept behind severe punishments assumes that the criminal is rational enough to weigh out the consequences before committing the crime.Ã However, as Wright points out, since half of the criminals that are locked up in U.S. prisons were drunk or high on drugs at the time of the offense, it is unlikely that they had the mental capacity to logically asses the consequences of their actions. Unfortunately, because of a shortage of police per capita and prison overcrowding, most crimes do not result in arrest or criminal incarceration. Clearly, enhancing the severity of punishment will have little impact on people who do not believe they will be apprehended for their actions. says Wright. Do Longer Sentences Improve Public Safety? Studies have shown that longer sentences result in higher rates of recidivism. According to Wright, accumulated data of 50 studies going back as far as 1958 on a total of 336,052 offenders with various criminal offenses and background showed the following: Offenders who averaged 30 months in prison had a recidivism rate of 29 percent. Offenders who averaged 12.9 months in prison had a recidivism rate of 26 percent. The Bureau of Justice Statistics did a study tracking 404,638 prisoners in 30 states after their release from prison in 2005. The researchers found that: Within three years of release, about two-thirds (67.8 percent) of released prisoners were rearrested.Within five years of release, about three-quarters (76.6 percent) of released prisoners were rearrested.Of those prisoners who were rearrested, more than half (56.7 percent) were arrested by the end of the first year. The research team theorizes that although offender services and programs may have a direct effect on desistance, individuals must decide independently to transform themselves into ex-offenders. However, the numbers do support Wrights argument that longer sentences result in higher rates of recidivism. Reaccessing the Economics of Current Crime Policies Both Wright and Dvoskin agree that the current money spent on incarceration has drained valuable resources and has not been effective in making communities safer. Wright points to a study done in 2006 that compared the cost of community drug treatment programs vs. the cost of incarcerating drug offenders. According to the study, a dollar spent on treatment in prison yields about six dollars of savings, whereas a dollar spent in community-based treatment yields nearly $20 in costs savings. Wright estimates that a savings $16.9 billion annually could be saved by a 50 percent reduction in the number of incarcerated non-violent offenders. Dvoskin feels that the rising prison population with the corresponding lack of increase in prison staff has reduced the ability of prison systems to supervise work programs that allow prisoners to build skills.Ã This makes it very hard to re-enter into the civilian world and increases the likelihood of going back to prison, Dvoskin said. Therefore, the priority should be placed on decreasing prison populations, he said: This can be done by paying more attention to those with the highest risk of violent behavior rather than focusing on lesser crimes, such as minor drug offenses. Conclusion By reducing the number of non-violent prisoners, it would free up the necessary money to invest in detecting criminal behavior which would increase the certainty of punishment and also allow for more effective programs that could help in reducing recidivism. Source: Workshop: Using Social Science to Prevent Violent Crime, Joel A. Dvoskin, PhD, University of Arizona College of Medicine Saturday, Aug. 8, Metro Toronto Convention Centre. Deterrence in Criminal Justice, Valerie Wright, Ph.D., The Sentencing Project.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Cross Cultural Management - Essay Example From managementÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, employees are considered the most important assets for the company and it is the quality of the employees that makes the business successful. In order to be successful, employees are offered with training and their skills are developed through different programs to achieve certain objectives. Training and development provide prime opportunities for the management to motivate their employees and at the same time enhance the knowledge and skills of the employees. This not only motivates the employees but also encourages them to increase their productivity for accomplishment of organizational objectives (Henry, 1995). Training and development are crucial for every business as skilled and motivated workforce can support the business to achieve its goals in a more productive manner. It is essential that the employees possess knowledge and skills so that their performance should be at optimal level. As in an organization, there are people from differen t cultural backgrounds and, thus, cross cultural training is one of the key elements today to reduce the cultural differences among employees working together (Bratton, & Gold, 2009). Organizations recruit individuals from different backgrounds; it becomes important for them to conduct cross cultural training programs and it helps in understanding cultural differences of people working together (Price, 2007). Emirates can be seen as one of the best examples of successful business in the world and the main reason for their success is focusing on the efficiency of the workforce. Being the best, Emirates spends about 5 to 6 percent of their revenue on training and development of their employees which enables the employees to be regarded as one of the best. Emirates hires people from different backgrounds and they conduct different cross cultural programs so that these people from diverse cultural backgrounds can work together. Emirates Airline has its own training facility specially bu ilt to train and develop the employees by allowing them to share their opinions and ideas, hence, expanding the knowledge of each individual and changing their behavior according to the requirements of the organization (Redman, & Wilkinson, 2009). Another example for successful business is McDonalds which is operating in different parts of the world and people from different cultural background work at McDonalds; this has been one of the main reasons for success of the company. McDonalds offers training to their employees on a continuous basis. McDonalds focuses on training and development of its employees according to the culture of the region they are operating in and at the same time they offer cross cultural training. According to McDonalds, their success lies in the employees (The Times, 2012) With increasing diversity in the organizations, organizations have been investing in cross cultural training programs. This report will analyze two theories related to cultural difference s and their impact on the performance of employees in organizations: Geert Hofstede cultural management theory and Trompenaars and Hampden Model. Geert Hofstede cultural management theory Geert HosfstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s has presented five dimensions to analyze the cultural differences and these dimensions have been applied on how it can influence the training and development programs. Power distance Power distance can be defined as how people accept that